Mexican coinage, tokens and medals including colonial and revolutionary issues. The United Mexican States is a federal constitutional republic south of the United States of America in North America. It is comprised of 31 states and the largest and capital city, Mexico City, a Federal District. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. Although Spanish is the official language, 62 indigenous Amerindian languages are recognized as national languages. Contrary to popular belief, Cinco de Mayo (5th of May) is not the day of independence, but the day commemorating the Mexican victory over the French at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862, and is celebrated Mexican heritage and pride. Independence from Spain: Declaration September 16, 1810; Recognized September 27, 1821. Monetary system: many in use throughout history; current Mexican Peso.